JPMorgan Chase & Co. again failed to convince a judge to throw out Labor Department claims that the financial services firm discriminated against female technology employees by paying them less than men.

The case is one of four ongoing compensation discrimination lawsuits brought by the DOL’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs against companies that do business with the federal government. Oracle Corp., Analogic Corp., and Cintas Corp. are also defending pay bias claims from the agency, which...