Google says the Labor Department hasn’t backed away from aggressive demands for wide-ranging employee pay data as part of a random audit, despite a new president in the White House and a judge’s decision to block some of the requests.

The tech company is embroiled in a dispute with the Labor Department over the agency’s request that Google provide salary histories for some 25,000 workers, dating back to the company’s formation in 1998. The DOL says it has already uncovered “systemic compensation disparities” among male and female workers and wants the data to try to uncover the source of those...