Makers of self-guided vehicles and machines are developing new safety features to prevent the equipment from dangerously crossing paths with human workers as the robotic equipment becomes more common at mining and construction sites.

While fully autonomous cars are still years away from being a common sight on the nation’s roadways, many mines already use autonomous haul trucks to carry ore out of deep pits. At construction sites for electric wind farms, you may find a self-guided bulldozer leveling the spot where one of the turbine towers will stand.

The adoption is likely to increase as the technology evolves to...