Advances in HIV prevention and treatment have led to a significant drop in AIDS-related deaths and HIV infections, but research for an HIV vaccine nevertheless remains necessary, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the National Institutes of Health said in a Feb. 6 New England Journal of Medicine perspective.

NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci and his colleague Hilary D. Marston co-authored “Ending AIDS? Is an HIV Vaccine Necessary?” They said the strides made to reduce the rate of infection have raised the question of whether an HIV vaccine is necessary.

“Even if HIV prevention...