Diabetes research will be hampered if Congress doesn’t extend a special fund that’s set to expire in the fall, a top NIH official said July 10.

“Without the funds being available, we would have to scale back on some of the studies or perhaps not start studies that were already planned and in the queue,” Griffin P. Rodgers, director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, said in an interview after Senate hearing on Type 1 diabetes. The agency is part of the National Institutes of Health.

“In a way, it’s unethical to bring people into...