Four technology companies—Ericsson Inc., Qualcomm Corp., Nokia Corp., and Koninklijke Philips N.V.—want the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to side with the Justice Department on standard-essential patent licensing.

Companies with patents on standard technologies typically license them to product manufacturers under fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory terms.

Makan Delrahim, the assistant attorney general in charge of the department’s antitrust division, has said...