The U.S. Supreme Court is taking on a False Claims Act case that could lead to whistleblowers having more time to file cases, which ultimately could lead to increased damage awards that would be paid by government contractors.

The court is being asked to decide whether a whistleblower may take advantage of a three-year filing period when the government doesn’t intervene in a case, or if that filing period applies only with intervention.

The statute of limitations standard the U.S....