Boeing Co.’s CEO received $23.4 million last year for turbocharging growth and driving record performance—before the second deadly crash of its best-selling 737 Max jetliner plunged the company into crisis.

Chief Executive Officer Dennis Muilenburg’s 2018 pay includes a $1.7 million salary and $13 million bonus, the Chicago-based company said March 15 in a regulatory filing. His total compensation rose 27 percent from a year earlier.

The pay package is a reminder of Boeing’s bright prospects before the recent catastrophe. Last year, the world’s largest planemaker topped $100 billion in sales for the first time while boosting output and exploring...