A Democratic effort to raise the federal hourly minimum wage to $15 is poised to get stiff resistance from Republicans, who argue such a mandate would negatively affect employees.

Congressional Democrats earlier this week reintroduced the Raise the Wage Act (H.R. 582, S.150), which would gradually raise the current $7.25 federal wage floor to $15 by 2024 and erase low-wage mandates for tipped and other workers. Republicans say the measure could undo job creation and cut wages raised...