A judge’s revival of a controversial employer pay reporting requirement will be reviewed by a federal appeals court in Washington, D.C.

On May 3, the Justice Department appealed two rulings that resurrected the Obama-era mandate and set deadlines for when when more than 60,000 employers must provide snapshots of their workers’ wages and hours—broken down by race, sex, and ethnicity—to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

The appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit came...