How broad is a judge’s order that blocks the EEOC from enforcing guidance about criminal background checks in employment decisions? That’s the question the government is asking in a federal court in Texas.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission March 1 asked Judge Sam R. Cummings to clarify the scope of his order blocking the government from enforcing guidance from 2012.

It’s the latest development in a legal challenge brought by Texas in 2013 over the EEOC’s guidance, which recognizes that the use of arrest and conviction records in employment decisions can sometimes have an unintentional discriminatory impact on certain racial...