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Worker License Rules Emerge as FTC Competition Oversight Priority

July 12, 2021, 10:01 AM

Workers who are relocating and expansion-minded businesses stand to score a major win under a new executive order targeting onerous occupational licensing requirements.

President Joe Biden’s order, signed Friday, calls on the Federal Trade Commission to boost labor market competition by writing new rules that limit “unnecessary, cumbersome” licensing requirements, often imposed by states’ regulatory boards and quasi-public organizations.

“Some overly restrictive occupational licensing requirements can impede workers’ ability to find jobs and to move between states,” according to the order.

The order comes amid a flurry of lawsuits against state or state-backed licensing bodies that accuse them of violating antitrust law by imposing expensive fees or threatening to shut down out-of-state businesses.

The text of the order didn’t include specific directions for federal antitrust agencies. But the FTC’s anticipated actions and possible rulemaking could lead to streamlined licensing requirements across states, eliminating demands for worker information unrelated to the job, enforcement of interstate commerce rules, and levying of punitive fines, market watchers say.

Licenses are expensive and requirements vary among states, even in the same industry. Reining in the requirements could remove a significant employment barrier, particularly for military families and others who frequently move between states or offer services across state lines. But it also could shift states’ calculations in cracking down on frauds and impostors.

Cosmetology licenses can cost up to $15,000 and sometimes years of study, said Dick Carpenter, a senior director of strategic research for the Institute for Justice. Other jobs, ranging from public health and safety positions to interior designers, barbers, and manicurists, also require licensing.

“Without any kind of standardization of different licensing requirements—even if you have the same requirements in different jurisdictions—you still have to get a license for each jurisdiction, which impedes an employee’s ability to be mobile,” said Tracey Diamond, a partner at Troutman Pepper LLP’s labor and employment practice.

Potential FTC Moves

The FTC’s options include writing new rules or heightening enforcement of interstate commerce rules in areas where they overlap with antitrust violations, labor market watchers say. Under this principle, restricting labor through onerous licensing requirements would be tantamount to limiting movement of services across borders.

“In the past, occupational licensing was a matter overseen by the Department of Labor, but they don’t quite have the teeth that the Federal Trade Commission has in terms of working in specific locations,” said Morris Kleiner, a University of Minnesota professor of labor policy.

The FTC could turn its limited resources toward scrutinizing occupational licensing programs that narrow the practice scope of a certain profession and limit competition, Kleiner said.

How the commission interprets which licensing requirements are “unnecessary” could be scrutinized. Those could include common requirements such as citizenship and a clean criminal record, said Bobby Chung, a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who focuses on licensing. .

“The required training, education and exams should confer the relevant skill sets,” Chung said. “If not, I would regard those requirements as unnecessary.”

The agency also may impose specific guidelines that limit fees or frequency of license renewal, Kleiner said.

“But more importantly, the FTC’s guidelines could be aimed specifically at states that have ratcheted up their requirements,” he said.

Gaining Attention

Burdensome licensing requirements have increasingly come under federal scrutiny as the labor market has shifted away from manufacturing jobs to service-oriented professions. States began imposing licensing requirements in order to protect consumers from bad actors and standardize services.

“Licenses create a monopoly of workers who can provide a service,” Kleiner said. “But if you provide those services without a license, the police powers of the state can arrest and severely fine those individuals.”

In 2020, roughly 23% of workers were required to have a license, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Over the years, many states, including Arizona, Connecticut, Nebraska, and Tennessee, have modified their rules to lower what they considered to be burdensome barriers to obtaining licenses.

Biden’s move is part of states’ broader push for changes, Carpenter said. “There is a momentum building to raise awareness to the issue.”

Advocates for change also cite underemployment and unemployment stemming from the burdensome licensing requirements, as well as allegations that certain industries create occupational licensing to limit competition.

Immigrants also can be affected by the licensing requirements, particularly if they hold foreign degrees but are performing lesser-skilled jobs in the U.S., according to a 2017 study by the Migration Policy Institute.

Licensing particularly hurts foreign nationals with temporary work visas whose immigration status impedes them from seeking a license to work within their specialty, Chung said. That in turn impedes their path to permanent residency or citizenship, he said.

State Action

The FTC has struggled to rein in licensing practices with antitrust violations partly because public entities, like state-controlled licensing boards, can claim state action immunity. Such immunity authorizes a state to carry out certain legitimate government functions, often in regulated industries that require licensing.

“Many of these state certifications don’t violate antitrust law and that’s because of this doctrine that displaces antitrust law,” said Jesse Markham, a partner at Baker & Miller PLLC’s San Francisco office. “And that’s why these certification requirements exist with impunity.”

In 2015, the Supreme Court ruled in North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners v. FTC that the state board was operated by market participants. Without active supervision from the state, the board couldn’t claim state action immunity from federal antitrust actions.

The ruling unleashed “dozens of lawsuits"—seeking antitrust treble damages—against individual members of licensing boards, according an October 2020 statement from Reps. Mike Conaway (R-Texas), Jamie Raskin (D-Md.), and David Cicilline (D-R.I.) in support of a bill they introduced to shield board members from such suits.

Qualifying for state action immunity largely depends on whether a board is a true government actor or a private market participant. But this delineation becomes more complex if there’s a blurred line between a state agency handling its own actions or a private group acting under state guidance.

How the FTC handles that blurred line will be one issue the agency tackles as it implements the president’s order.

The FTC may not be able to restrict states’ regulatory powers, but it could seek to impose penalties where it can enforce antitrust law, attorneys say.

“I think that it would be important to point out that this is just uncharted territory,” Markham said.

To contact the reporters on this story: Siri Bulusu in Washington at; Erin Mulvaney in Washington at; Claire Hao at

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Roger Yu at; Laura D. Francis at