The U.S. Supreme Court ignored important challenges to a career criminal sentencing enhancement that could affect over 1,000 cases nationwide, Justice Sonia Sotomayor said Oct. 15 in her latest dissent.

The high court rejected several appeals seeking to take advantage of a landmark 2015 opinion that struck down an identical provision in another law that also enhanced sentences for repeat offenders. That prompted Sotomayor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg to argue that the justices should have taken up the issue here. It takes four of them to agree to hear a case.

Sotomayor wrote separately for the second straight week on...