House Republicans are calling on Democrats to work together on net neutrality legislation, but the two sides remain far apart in their approaches.

Lawmakers aired their differences during a Feb. 7 House Energy and Commerce Communications and Technology Subcommittee hearing on the Federal Communications Commission’s rollback of Obama-era net neutrality rules. Those rules banned internet service providers such as AT&T Inc. and Verizon Communications Inc. from blocking, throttling or prioritizing web traffic on their networks in most circumstances.

An array of stakeholders, from ISPs to tech companies to public policy groups, have been calling on Congress to settle the issue...