Foreigners seeking to invest in U.S aircraft and missile manufacturers, semiconductors or two dozen other industries would face heightened scrutiny by a government committee wielding stronger powers, under rules the Trump administration will issue Oct. 10.

Investors interested in American developers of semiconductors, telecommunications, missile technology, aircraft, and batteries and other products would see their bids undergo more intensive review, a senior administration official told reporters at a briefing.

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the U.S. will begin subjecting...