Industrial product makers are closely watching a Supreme Court case set for argument Oct. 10.

The suit asks whether a federal appeals court correctly held that a former U.S. Navy seaman could sue a ship’s engine pump maker and others for injuries from asbestos-containing parts used in their products but not made by them.

Defendants in the suit include Air & Liquid Systems Corp., CBS Corp., and Foster Wheeler LLC.

The top court will address what is known as the...