A bill that would expand California’s landmark privacy law to allow consumers to sue companies for violations is likely dead for the year.

The Senate Appropriations Committee held S.B. 561 by Sen. Hannah-Beth Jackson (D) without voting on it May 16, a procedural move that probably derails the measure. Bills must pass at least one chamber by May 31 to advance in the legislature this year, and the committee now is unlikely to send the bill to the full state Senate.

Attorney General Xavier Becerra (D) had backed the bill, saying it was necessary for enforcement of the California Consumer...