A majority in Swedish parliament’s European Union committee voted against the bloc’s Copyright Directive, directing the government to rescind its backing of the new rules.

The majority came after the Green Party decided to oppose the official stance of its own Social Democrat-led coalition government.

Lorentz Tovatt, a Green Party committee representative, said over the phone that his party had voted no to what it considers to be an unacceptable and “extensive attack on the free Internet.” The decision directs...