Sprint Corp. won an appeals court decision that affirmed a $140 million patent-infringement verdict against Time Warner Cable Inc. concerning Voice over Internet Protocol services.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit on Nov. 30 affirmed a jury decision that Time Warner Cable, now owned by Charter Communications Inc., infringed five Sprint patents related to packet-switched networks. The 2-1 panel decision was posted on the court’s electronic docket.

Sprint filed the suit against Time Warner Cable and other cable television companies in 2011, claiming they used, without permission, Sprint inventions for transmitting phone calls over digital lines. Comcast...