Arcadia Biosciences Inc. can’t go forward with patent claims against three agricultural companies for allegedly using the company’s invention to obtain patents and develop high fiber wheat product lines, a federal court in New York said.

Arcadia’s claims against Arista Cereal Technologies fail because Arista wasn’t a party to a nondisclosure agreement, the court said.

And the claims against Vilmorin & CIE, and Limagrain Cereales Ingredients SA must be dismissed because they are untimely, the court said.

Arcadia alleged that it invented a genetically modified high fiber wheat. In the hope of commercially developing the product, Arcadia shared the invention...