Twenty Veterans Affairs medical centers are using artificial intelligence and 3D printing to produce models of everything from kidneys to tumors that doctors can practice on before surgery.

Under the program, artificial intelligence algorithms interpret CT and MRI scans and send them to a 3D printer, which then prints out a model for surgeons, all within an hour or two, Dr. Ryan Vega, acting executive director of the VA’s Veterans Health Administration Innovation Ecosystem, said during a March 13 Nextgov conference on artificial intelligence in health care.

Artificial intelligence has the potential to automate otherwise time-consuming tasks, improve efficiency, and...