A new rule governing federal government family planning grant programs will decimate providers and patients if allowed to take effect, the rule’s challengers said.

An Oregon-led coalition consisting of 20 states and the District of Columbia May 20 urged the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit to leave an injunction blocking the government from enforcing the rule in effect until its validity is determined. The government May 10 asked the court to lift the injunction while the appeal is pending.

The new regulation governs Title X, the only federal program devoted to ensuring people receive family planning care...