The Trump administration is proposing to loosen requirements on insurers that administer low-income health programs to accommodate telehealth, but some critics worry that will harm patients in remote areas.

Medicaid patients often live in areas of the country where doctors are in short supply, which means they may have to travel farther to get care, and it’s sometimes difficult to get timely appointments.

New ways of providing routine care through video conferencing or smartphone apps can answer some of these...