The public may learn of much more chemical contamination in their drinking water if legislation with bipartisan support in the House and Senate becomes law.

The bills, H.R. 1976 and S. 950, would require the U.S. Geological Survey to sample all of the country’s water bodies for a class of chemicals called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS. These chemicals are used in nonstick coatings, firefighting foams, and some food packaging, and some types of them have caused contamination problems in drinking water supplies in dozens of cities and towns across the country.

In addition to ordering...