New York budget legislation sent to Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo (D) for expected approval April 2 staked out new state positions on sexual harassment and compulsory union fees for public employees.

Cuomo and lawmakers used the annual budget, which customarily carries the bulk of the state’s legislative business in massive omnibus bills, to establish their blue state positions on the hot-button national issues. They finished the substantive work March 30 as the April 1 start of the state fiscal year loomed.

The sexual harassment provisions drew both praise and criticism. Aimed at responding to the broad #MeToo movement, the language...