One of the nation’s largest private prison operators again has failed to convince a federal judge that it can’t be sued for requiring immigrant detainees to work at the facility for $1 a day.

CoreCivic Inc. asked that Judge Janis Sammartino of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California reconsider a May 2018 decision that federal immigration law doesn’t block the detainees from suing under California’s wage-and-hour laws. The company also asked that it be allowed to...