Workers in California are filing more sexual harassment charges with a state civil rights agency than with the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, according to government data.

Although California is the most populous state in the nation, it trailed behind Texas, New York, Florida, and other states in the number of sexual harassment charges submitted to the EEOC. The agency’s fiscal year 2018 enforcement data, released April 10, showed 348 charges from California. The top three states—Texas, New York,...